Por: Joel.S. Ochoa, ingeniero de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo.¹, Miguel Montiel, ingeniero Industrial, Universidad de Lima.This paper shows how metallography allows companies manufacturing components for the mining, cement, metalworking and sugar industries to grow and meet high quality standards. Metallography, as is well-known, consists of a series of stages ranging from the selection of material to be analyzed, encapsulating said material, preparation and/or mechanical grinding, mirror polishing, chemical attack and identification and analysis of current phases of the material under study. Metallography is the study of metals and alloys’ structure. Metallographic analysis is used as a tool to help identify a metal or alloy, in order to determine whether an alloy has been properly processed, to examine the multiple phases within a material, to characterize imperfections such as pores or impurities, to observe damage or degradations, as well as in failure analysis researches. Optical microscopy is the method used in this case for making evaluations. It is worth mentioning that both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM / EDX) can be useful to achieve a successful metallographic analysis.